Pinotti, T., Bergström, A., Geppert, M., Bawn, M., Ohasi, D., Shi, W., Lacerda, D.R., Solli, A., Norstedt, J., Reed, K. and Dawtry, K., 2018.
The Americas were the last inhabitable continents to be occupied by humans, with a growing multidisciplinary consensus for entry 15–25 thousand years ago (kya) from northeast Asia via the former Beringia land bridge [1, 2, 3, 4]. Autosomal DNA analyses have dated the separation of Native American ancestors from the Asian gene pool to 23 kya or later [5, 6] and mtDNA analyses to ∼25 kya , followed by isolation (“Beringian Standstill” [8, 9]) for 2..4–9 ky and then a rapid expansion throughout the Americas. Here, we present a calibrated sequence-based analysis of 222 Native American and relevant Eurasian Y chromosomes (24 new) from haplogroups Q and C , with four major conclusions.
- First, we identify three to four independent lineages as autochthonous and likely founders: the major Q-M3 and rarer Q-CTS1780 present throughout the Americas, the very rare C3-MPB373 in South America, and possibly the C3-P39/Z30536 in North America.
- Second, from the divergence times and Eurasian/American distribution of lineages, we estimate a Beringian Standstill duration of 2.7 ky or 4.6 ky, according to alternative models, and entry south of the ice sheet after 19.5 kya.
- Third, we describe the star-like expansion of Q-M848 (within Q-M3) starting at 15 kya  in the Americas, followed by establishment of substantial spatial structure in South America by 12 kya.
- Fourth, the deep branches of the Q-CTS1780 lineage present at low frequencies throughout the Americas today  may reflect a separate out-of-Beringia dispersal after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Pleistocene.