Tuesday, December 25, 2018

Y Chromosome Sequences Reveal a Short Beringian Standstill, Rapid Expansion, and early Population structure of Native American Founders


Pinotti, T., Bergström, A., Geppert, M., Bawn, M., Ohasi, D., Shi, W., Lacerda, D.R., Solli, A., Norstedt, J., Reed, K. and Dawtry, K., 2018.

Current Biology.

The Americas were the last inhabitable continents to be occupied by humans, with a growing multidisciplinary consensus for entry 15–25 thousand years ago (kya) from northeast Asia via the former Beringia land bridge [1, 2, 3, 4]. Autosomal DNA analyses have dated the separation of Native American ancestors from the Asian gene pool to 23 kya or later [5, 6] and mtDNA analyses to ∼25 kya [7], followed by isolation (“Beringian Standstill” [8, 9]) for 2..4–9 ky and then a rapid expansion throughout the Americas. Here, we present a calibrated sequence-based analysis of 222 Native American and relevant Eurasian Y chromosomes (24 new) from haplogroups Q and C [10], with four major conclusions.

  • First, we identify three to four independent lineages as autochthonous and likely founders: the major Q-M3 and rarer Q-CTS1780 present throughout the Americas, the very rare C3-MPB373 in South America, and possibly the C3-P39/Z30536 in North America.
  • Second, from the divergence times and Eurasian/American distribution of lineages, we estimate a Beringian Standstill duration of 2.7 ky or 4.6 ky, according to alternative models, and entry south of the ice sheet after 19.5 kya.
  • Third, we describe the star-like expansion of Q-M848 (within Q-M3) starting at 15 kya [11] in the Americas, followed by establishment of substantial spatial structure in South America by 12 kya.
  • Fourth, the deep branches of the Q-CTS1780 lineage present at low frequencies throughout the Americas today [12] may reflect a separate out-of-Beringia dispersal after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Pleistocene.

Friday, November 23, 2018

Black Friday DNA test deals

The following companies are offering reduced cost autosomal DNA tests. These tests can be used to reliably find immediate family and cousins out to 4th or 5th cousins. Less reliably, they can give you ethnic ancestry results.

  • MyHeritage DNA - $49 plus free shipping with coupon code Free18 (ends Nov 23)
  • 23andMe - $69 per kit, shipping extra, or $129 for the Ancestry + Health version (ends Nov 25)
  • AncestryDNA - $49 per kit, plus shipping (ends Nov 26)
  • Family Tree DNA - $39 per DNA test, shipping extra (ends Nov 26)
  • LivingDNA through Findmypast, $59 plus shipping (ends Nov 26)
  • LivingDNA direct - $69 per kit, plus shipping (no posted end date)

I have tested at all of these companies.

I recommend the following testing strategy:
Test at AncestryDNA and 23andMe and then upload the raw data to the others. This is the lowest cost strategy and gets your results into the largest commercial genetic genealogy databases.

An additional upload is to Gedmatch. This will allow people who have tested at only one company to match other people from different companies. Gedmatch has both free and fee services. The free services get you their matching service.

There is a new company Dante Labs, doing whole genome testing for $199.00 (L169.00) for Black Friday Week. This is a 30x coverage of your whole genome and can be used for learning about medical propensities. Not really useful for genealogy.

If you already have a test result, be sure to upload to MyHeritage and Living DNA before 1 December to avoid their new fee schedule.

If you are interested in graphical representation of your relative network, Rootsfinder is another company to join before 1 December.

NOTE: I do not earn any money from your using any of these links.

Thursday, September 13, 2018

MyHeritage now supports the upload of 23andMe v5 and Living DNA data files, in addition to supporting data uploads from all major DNA testing services, including Ancestry, 23andMe (prior to V5) and Family Tree DNA (Family Finder).

Since 2016, MyHeritage has allowed users who have already tested their DNA to upload their DNA data from Ancestry, 23andMe and Family Tree DNA. They receive DNA Matches and ethnicity estimates on MyHeritage for free.

However, previously MyHeritage did not support the upload of tests based on the chip called GSA (Global Screening Array), now being used by 23andMe (v5), and by Living DNA. Recent improvements to their DNA algorithms now allows them to support DNA data processed on GSA chips, and so they now support uploads of 23andMe v5 and Living DNA data files.

Uploading DNA data to MyHeritage is fast and simple -- perhaps one of the easiest. For users that upload now, they offer full access to DNA Matching, Ethnicity Estimates, and their chromosome browser for free.

Upload your Ancestry, FamilyTreeDNA, 23andMe, and LivingDNA to MyHeritage here.

Incentive to upload before December 1
If you have not uploaded your DNA raw data to MyHeritage, you should think about doing so now.

As of December 1, 2018, MyHeritage's policy regarding DNA uploads will change: DNA Matching will remain free for uploaded DNA data, but unlocking additional DNA features (for example, ethnicity estimate, chromosome browser, and some others) will require an extra payment for DNA files uploaded after this date.

MyHeritage will announce the full details of the new policy once it is finalized, closer to December 1.

All DNA data that was uploaded to MyHeritage in the past, and all DNA data that is uploaded now and prior to December 1, 2018, will continue to enjoy full access to all DNA features for free. These uploads will be grandfathered in and will remain free.

Friday, June 15, 2018

Sunday, May 27, 2018

Do you have a DNA match to me? Have you added a family tree?

While there are different reasons to take a DNA test, one reason is to find unknown relatives. If you have taken a genetic genealogy oriented DNA test you are probably interested in determining your genealogical link to people you match. When you add a family tree at either the DNA testing company, FamilyTree DNA, MyHeritage, LivingDNA, or AncestryDNA, etc., or at a genealogical website which you link your DNA results to, GENI, WIKITREE, TribalPages, etc., please be as complete with the data for deceased individuals as you can. This means that you include locations, at least county and state in the USA, and full dates of birth, marriage, and death, as far as you know them.

Please don't list deceased persons as Private unless you don't want genealogical relations to find you. In the USA the most recent public population census is that for 1940. The 1950 census will be available in 2022. Having locations and dates allows the person looking at your family tree to make connections with people in their tree to allow identification of the most recent common ancestor/s, (MRCA). This will greatly enhance the possibility of extending your genealogy research.

My suggested minimum family tree would go back to your Great Grandparents with their spouses and children, and work forward and stop at living people on each line. Ideally going back to before the 1850 census would probably work for most people in the USA.

If your ancestry in the 1800s or 1900s was mostly in Europe or otherwise outside of the USA, testing at MyHeritage and/or AncestryDNA will probably be of most use to you. For genealogical records I also suggest using FamilySearch.org due to its worldwide coverage.

I hope this will help you find your relatives.

Sunday, May 06, 2018

23andMe project for under-represented groups

Global Genetics project at 23andme

23andMe is offering free genetic testing to people with all four grandparents from world regions with little representation in the 23andMe genetic database. There is more information at the link above.

Tuesday, April 24, 2018


Happy DNA Day!

The 2018 DNA Day Sale began April 20, 2018, and ends April 28, 2018, at 11:59 P.M. Pacific Time.
Group discounts do not apply during the sale. Here are the sale prices.
Test Regular Price Sale Price
mtFull Sequence $199 $149
Family Finder $79 $49
Y-37         $169 $139
Y-67         $268 $209
Y-111         $359 $289
Big Y-500 $799 $649
Family Finder + Y-37 
                $248 $179
Family Finder + Y-67 
                $347 $249
Family Finder + mtFull Sequence 
                $278 $189
Family Finder + Y-67 + mtFull Sequence 
                $546 $398
Upgrades to Big Y-500  
to Big Y-500 $449 $349
Y-67 to Big Y-500 
                $559 $459
Y-37 to Big Y-500
         $649 $549
Y-25 to Big Y-500
         $699 $599
Y-12 to Big Y-500
         $749 $629

Saturday, March 03, 2018

Summer internship for INdigenous Peoples in Genomics (SING), SFU., Vancouver, July 2018

From Kim TallBear:

Spread the word. applications being accepted for Summer internship for INdigenous Peoples in Genomics (SING), SFU., Vancouver, July 2018. Co-sponsored by @indigenous_sts @UANativeStudies & more. Lab work, biostatistics, decolonial bioethics & more. http://indigenoussts.com/sing-canada/sing-canada-2018/